Causes of Pain Due to Disease
By now you understand that there are many pain disorders and any disease from head to toe can give rise to pain. There are so many causes but let’s summarize only the most important and significant diseases.
Prior to discussing localized pain syndromes, it is prudent to see the important reasons for generalized pain first.
Fibromyalgia is a non-progressive chronic pain syndrome resulting from Central Nervous System dysfunction. In fibromyalgia, patients have pain amplification, musculoskeletal discomfort and systemic symptoms. It is because pain processing is impaired in patients with fibromyalgia. It gives rise to allodynia (painful perception of a non-painful stimulus) and hyperalgesia (intensified and amplified perception of pain sensation). Usually there is a history of pain injury in the past. Patients complain about generalized pain limiting physical activity and easy fatigability. The pain may be bone pain, head pain, head neck pain, back and neck pain and pain virtually anywhere else at rest or with minimal work. They also complain of increased sensitivity to sounds, lights, odors and vibrations and perceive them as distracting and painful sometimes. Insufficient sleep worsens the condition.
Fibromyalgia patients have pain as their main symptom associated with specific tender points in the body known as fibromyalgia pain points. They sometimes report discomfort after very mild exertion, low-grade fever sensitive skin. Senior citizens have easy fatigability, depression and soft tissue swelling more commonly rather than having pain per se.
Fibromyalgia pain medication includes opioids, NSAIDS, NMDA receptor antagonists, antidepressants and compatible invasive and natural complementary treatment.
Chronic myofascial pain
Myofascia is a thin and almost translucent filmy structure surrounding almost the whole body, chiefly muscles. It gives anchor to the blood vessels, nerve fibers and lymph. It can exist in the form of superficial, deep or sub serous fascia depending upon where it is present. It is composed of cells and ground substance. All the day-to-day cellular activity of our body has to occur through the myofascia only. Any injury to the myofascia damages its functional integrity. The injury may be in the form of misuse, diseases, injury or abnormal mobility. It results in the formation of trigger points, which give rise to pain and tenderness whenever they are stimulated resulting in chronic myofascial pain.
Chronic myofascial pain can occur alone and in association with fibromyalgia. It can also co-exist with arthritis, depression, esophageal reflux, infections (eg. HIV, Lyme disease), irritable bowel syndrome, post polio syndrome and vulvodynia.
Stress, inadequate sleep, poor posture, abnormal body anatomy, under treated chronic pain predispose to chronic myofascial pain. Surgery can also predispose to chronic myofascial pain if pain relief is inadequate in the perioperative period.
Polyarthritis and polyarthralgia
These are a diverse group of diseases ranging from autoimmune to infectious diseases. Inflammation pain in multiple joints with or without swelling is the common denominator in all these diseases. The muscles surrounding the joints and internal organs can also be affected. Causes of joint pain of this type are Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Leptospirosis, Chikungunya fever, HIV etc. Arthritis pain medicine includes aspirin, NSAIDS, COX2 inhibitors, steroids, specific antibiotics as indicated and disease modifying anti rheumatic agents wherever appropriate. In addition, there are natural remedies for pain you can try.